Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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Be the first to review this item Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Because these basic traits are shared by all states, the exponents of the tradi- tional approach can afford to treat these psychological presupposi- tions in a cavalier fashion.
Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.
Diecord, the impact of the particular circum- stances of international politics, in which the actors act for corpo- rate bodies in a milieu of multi-state conditions and power strug- gles, can hardly be exaggerated. In this context of interenemy action and reaction, the problem of escalation deserves the very serious attention it has attracted in the nuclear age. Books by Arnold Wolfers. If one looks collaboratioj closely, one discovers that rather than emerging out of an intellec- tual vacuum, his hunches rest, in fact, on generalizations of some sort.
The reader is referred to collaboratin of the chapters below for collabpration more detailed attempt to evaluate the contributions to knowledge of dif- ferent schools of thought, and to Chapter 15 for a discussion of theory as it refers not to the way nations actually do behave but, normatively, to the way they should behave.
Various explana- tions are possible that France’s fear of Germany was exceptionally strong or that French statesmen were exhibiting a unique degree of foresight in realizing that the French wolfera would in time be- come untenable.
Refresh and try again. As a matter of fact, if one can criticize some recent studies it is not because they fail to take account of change but be- cause they exaggerate its impact to the point of loosing sight of the aspects of continuity and of successful resistance to change that are equally conspicuous in vollaboration day.
There also has been a marked increase in the power over men that can be exercised in the name of the state. A third theory which has gained adherents in recent times may be called environmentalist, too, if one focuses on the behavior of the arnodl who act for nations rather than on the nations them- selves as corporate actors. In extreme cases what an actor may consciously perceive may bear little resemblance to what an objective observer would describe as the environment.
Here, then, there appears a connection between the phenomenon of nonstate corporate actors and the individuals-as-actors approach. When tariff protection is made the objective of national policy it becomes an indirect national goal.
In this case, they would have no incentive to make or press demands on others.
As a consequence, it may consider its survival at stake in a conflict over remote and intrinsically unimportant islandso such as Quemoy and Collaboratuon or over legal rights in Ahd Berlin on the ground that, by an assumed domino effect or chain reaction, defeat at any one point will lead to defeat at every other point, until in the end all chances of survival are nullified. As a consequence, there would be no rational cause for conflict or for disturbances of the peace.
These factors will be discussed here under the heading of determinants, or codeterminants, of policy.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers
Peace is threatened at that stage of the conflict when physical coercion, by one side or both, becomes a practical possibility. To ask other readers questions about Discord and Collaborationplease sign up.
If they were, states would never consent to make sacrifices for purposes–such as the promotion of peace–that obviously do not constitute their sole objective. They may do so directly, in negotiating and dealing with similar groups abroad or even with the governments of other states, or they may exert their influence as domestic pressure groups so effectively that collabortaion eign statesmen would be ill-advised to ignore them.
Here there is far less chance that their aims will be found to be in harmony. Was never opened or read. However, when other governments are making up siscord minds how to react to such intervention or deciding what to expect from the intervening nation in future contingencies, they cannot avoid seeking to discover what colkaboration was that prompted the particular action.
But in order viscord discover how men in the contemporary world do in fact identify themselves or what they refer to, as Paul Nitze puts it, 9 when they speak of the “we” in international affairsattention must be focused on the individual human beings for whom identi- fication is a psychological event.
In assisting “wars of liberation,” for instance, the Soviet Union may hope to gain friends or allies for itself while simultaneously helping history along its predestined path toward a Communist world.
On the other hand, any serious threat to India’s control of eastern Kashmir can be ex- pected to result in Indian military action, despite Nehru’s alleged pacifist inclinations. These phenomena, which indicate serious deviations from the billiard ball model, also deserve attention from the analyst today.
But the result, on the whole, was to substitute one set of abstractions for another because, in politics, it is wolfera an abstraction to examine the individual apart from the corporate bodies by means of which he acts politically.
The most radical psychopolitical approach is taken by the psychologists, psychiatrists, and sociologists whose views are contained in the two volumes of the “Tensions Project” of UNESCO, Tensions that Cause Wars ed.
This reaction has taken two dis- tinct forms: The example that comes to mind is that of Communist governments which, it is widely assumed, engage their countries in efforts to promote the universalist goal of worldwide victory for Communism whether or not their countries as nation-states with a territorial base and with distinct security interests stand to gain by such efforts. Such “deviationist” behavior, run- ning counter to expectation, would justify and require intensive psychological inquiry.
Here, the corresponding Internal pressure for action comes from appetite or temptation rather than from fear.
Nothing of the kind is intended here. The goal of national survival itself is given a wide variety of interpretations by different countries or countries facing different conditions. Whether the United Nations has become a center of decision and action in its own right is a quaestio facti, as it is in the case of all the competitors of the nation-state.
Moreover, the “exits” are not clearly marked, with the result that some statesmen seek safety in military prepared- ness while others expect to find it in appeasement. In International politics, the house is not always, nor everywhere, on wolfer although the temperature may not be comfortable, even under the best of circumstances! In the introduction to the book by him and Abraham Kaplan, Power and Society: Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es.
Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. Wolfers’ achievements in the field of political theory.